The Numerical Discourses of the Buddha - Selections

I. One’s Own Mind

51 (1) One’s Own Mind
On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Sāvatthī in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park. There the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus: “Bhikkhus!”
   “Venerable sir!” those bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One said this:
   “Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who is not skilled in the ways of others’ minds [should train]: ‘I will be skilled in the ways of my own mind.’ It is in this way that you should train yourselves.
    “And how is a bhikkhu skilled in the ways of his own mind? It is just as if a woman or a man, young, youthful, and fond of ornaments, would look at their own facial reflection in a clean bright mirror or in a bowl of clear water. If they see any dust or blemish there, they will make an effort to remove it. But if they do not see any dust or blemish there, they will be glad about it; and their wish fulfilled, they will think, ‘How fortunate that I’m clean!’ So too, self-examination is very helpful for a bhikkhu [to grow] in wholesome qualities.
   “[One should ask oneself:] (1) ‘Am I often given to longing [93] or without longing? (2) Am I often given to ill will or without ill will? (3) Am I often overcome by dullness and drowsiness or free from dullness and drowsiness? (4) Am I often restless or calm? (5) Am I often plagued by doubt or free from doubt? (6) Am I often angry or without anger? (7) Is my mind often defiled or undefiled? (8) Is my body often agitated or unagitated? (9) Am I often lazy or energetic? (10) Am I often unconcentrated or concentrated?’
   “If, by such self-examination, a bhikkhu knows: ‘I am often given to longing, given to ill will, overcome by dullness and drowsiness, restless, plagued by doubt, angry, defiled in mind, agitated in body, lazy, and unconcentrated,’ he should put forth extraordinary desire, effort, zeal, enthusiasm, indefatigability, mindfulness, and clear comprehension to abandon those same bad unwholesome qualities. Just as one whose clothes or head had caught fire would put forth extraordinary desire, effort, zeal, enthusiasm, indefatigability, mindfulness, and clear comprehension to extinguish [the fire on] his clothes or head, so too that bhikkhu should put forth extraordinary desire, effort, zeal, enthusiasm, indefatigability, mindfulness, and clear comprehension to abandon those same bad unwholesome qualities. [94]
   “But if, by such self-examination, a bhikkhu knows: ‘I am often without longing, without ill will, free from dullness and drowsiness, calm, free from doubt, without anger, undefiled in mind, unagitated in body, energetic, and concentrated,’ he should base himself on those same wholesome qualities and make a further effort to reach the destruction of the taints.”

52 (2) Sāriputta
There the Venerable Sāriputta addressed the bhikkhus: “Friends, bhikkhus!”
   “Friend!” those bhikkhus replied. The Venerable Sāriputta said this:
   [Identical with 10:51, but spoken by Sāriputta.] [95-96]

53 (3) Standstill
“Bhikkhus, I do not praise even a standstill in wholesome qualities, much less decline. I praise only growth in wholesome qualities, not a standstill or deterioration.
   “And how is there deterioration—not a standstill or growth—in wholesome qualities? Here, a bhikkhu has a certain degree of faith, virtuous behavior, learning, renunciation, wisdom, and discernment. Those qualities of his do not remain the same or increase. This, I say, is deterioration rather than a standstill or growth in wholesome qualities. Thus there is deterioration—not a standstill or growth—in wholesome qualities.
   “And how is there a standstill—not deterioration or growth—in wholesome qualities? Here, a bhikkhu has a certain degree of faith, virtuous behavior, learning, renunciation, wisdom, and discernment. Those qualities of his do not deteriorate or increase. This, I say, is a standstill rather than deterioration or growth in wholesome qualities. Thus there is a standstill—not deterioration or growth—in wholesome qualities.
   “And how is there growth—not a standstill or deterioration—in wholesome qualities? Here, a bhikkhu has a certain degree of faith, virtuous behavior, learning, renunciation, wisdom, and discernment. Those qualities of his do not remain the same or deteriorate. This, I say, is growth rather than a standstill or deterioration in wholesome qualities. Thus there is growth—not a standstill or deterioration—in wholesome qualities.
   “Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who is not skilled in the ways of others’ minds [should train]: ‘I will be skilled in the ways of my own mind.’ … [97, 98] … [as in 10:51 down to:] … But if, by such self-examination, a bhikkhu knows: ‘I am often without longing … and concentrated,’ then he should base himself on those same wholesome qualities and make a further effort to reach the destruction of the taints.”

54 (4) Serenity
“Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu who is not skilled in the ways of others’ minds [should train]: ‘I will be skilled in the ways of my own mind.’ It is in this way that you should train yourselves.
   “And how is a bhikkhu skilled in the ways of his own mind? It is just as if a woman or a man, young, youthful, and fond of ornaments, would look at their own facial reflection in a clean bright mirror or in a bowl of clear water. If they see any dust or blemish there, they will make an effort to remove it. But if they do not see any dust or blemish there, they will be glad about it; [99] and their wish fulfilled, they will think, ‘How fortunate for me that I’m clean!’
   “So too, bhikkhus, self-examination is very helpful for a bhikkhu [to grow] in wholesome qualities: ‘Do I gain internal serenity of mind or not? Do I gain the higher wisdom of insight into phenomena or not?’
   (1) “If, by such self-examination, a bhikkhu knows: ‘I gain internal serenity of mind but not the higher wisdom of insight into phenomena,’ he should base himself on internal serenity of mind and make an effort to gain the higher wisdom of insight into phenomena. Then, some time later, he gains both internal serenity of mind and the higher wisdom of insight into phenomena.
   (2) “But if, by such self-examination, he knows: ‘I gain the higher wisdom of insight into phenomena but not internal serenity of mind,’ he should base himself on the higher wisdom of insight into phenomena and make an effort to gain internal serenity of mind. Then, some time later, he gains both the higher wisdom of insight into phenomena and internal serenity of mind.
   (3) “But if, by such self-examination, he knows: ‘I gain neither internal serenity of mind nor the higher wisdom of insight into phenomena,’ he should put forth extraordinary desire, effort, zeal, enthusiasm, indefatigability, mindfulness, and clear comprehension to obtain both those wholesome qualities. Just as one whose clothes or head had caught fire would put forth extraordinary desire, effort, zeal, enthusiasm, indefatigability, mindfulness, and clear comprehension to extinguish [the fire on] his clothes or head, so that bhikkhu should put forth extraordinary desire, [100] effort, zeal, enthusiasm, indefatigability, mindfulness, and clear comprehension to obtain both those wholesome qualities. Then, some time later, he gains both internal serenity of mind and the higher wisdom of insight into phenomena.
   (4) “But if, by such self-examination, he knows: ‘I gain both internal serenity of mind and the higher wisdom of insight into phenomena,’ he should base himself on those same wholesome qualities and make a further effort to reach the destruction of the taints.
   “Robes, I say, are twofold: to be used and those not to be used. Almsfood too, I say, is twofold: that to be used and that not to be used. Lodgings too, I say, are twofold: those to be used and those not to be used. Villages or towns too, I say, are twofold: those to be resorted to and those not to be resorted to. Countries or regions too, I say, are twofold: those to be resorted to and those not to be resorted to. Persons too, I say, are twofold: those to be associated with and those not to be associated with.
   (5) “When it was said: ‘Robes, I say, are twofold: those to be used and those not to be used,’ for what reason was this said? If one knows of a robe: ‘When I use this robe, unwholesome qualities increase in me and wholesome qualities decline,’ one should not use such a robe. But if one knows of a robe: ‘When I use this robe, unwholesome qualities decline in me and wholesome qualities increase,’ one should use such a robe. When it was said: ‘Robes, I say, are twofold: to be used and not to be used,’ it is because of this that this was said.
   (6) “When it was said: ‘Almsfood too, I say, is twofold: that to be used and that not to be used,’ for what reason was this said? If one knows of some almsfood: ‘When I use this almsfood, unwholesome qualities increase in me and wholesome [101] qualities decline,’ one should not use such almsfood. But if one knows of some almsfood: ‘When I use this almsfood, unwholesome qualities decline in me and wholesome qualities increase,’ one should use such almsfood. When it was said: ‘Almsfood too, I say, is twofold: that to be used and that not to be used,’ it is because of this that this was said.
   (7) “When it was said: ‘Lodgings too, I say, are twofold: those to be used and those not to be used,’ for what reason was this said? If one knows of a lodging: ‘When I use this lodging, unwholesome qualities increase in me and wholesome qualities decline,’ one should not use such a lodging. But if one knows of a lodging: ‘When I use this lodging, unwholesome qualities decline in me and wholesome qualities increase,’ one should use such a lodging. When it was said: ‘Lodgings too, I say, are twofold: those to be used and those not to be used,’ it is because of this that this was said.
   (8) “When it was said: ‘Villages or towns too, I say, are twofold: those to be resorted to and those not to be resorted to,’ for what reason was this said? If one knows of a village or town: ‘When I resort to this village or town, unwholesome qualities increase in me and wholesome qualities decline,’ one should not resort to such a village or town. But if one knows of a village or town: ‘When I resort to this village or town, unwholesome qualities decline in me and wholesome qualities increase,’ one should resort to such a village or town. When it was said: ‘Villages or towns too, I say, are twofold: those to be resorted to and those not to be resorted to,’ it is because of this that this was said.
   (9) “When it was said: ‘Countries or regions too, I say, are twofold: those to be resorted to and those not to be resorted to,’ for what reason was this said? If one knows of a country or region: ‘When I resort to this country or region, unwholesome qualities increase in me [102] and wholesome qualities decline,’ one should not resort to such a country or region. But if one knows of a country or region: ‘When I resort to this country or region, unwholesome qualities decline in me and wholesome qualities increase,’ one should resort to such a country or region. When it was said: ‘Countries or regions too, I say, are twofold: those to be resorted to and those not to be resorted to,’ it is because of this that this was said.”
   (10) “When it was said: ‘Persons too, I say, are twofold: those to be associated with and those not to be associated with,’ for what reason was this said? If one knows of a person: ‘When I associate with this person, unwholesome qualities increase in me and wholesome qualities decline,’ one should not associate with such a person. But if one knows of a person: ‘When I associate with this person, unwholesome qualities decline in me and wholesome qualities increase,’ one should associate with such a person. When it was said: ‘Persons too, I say, are twofold: those to be associated with and those not to be associated with,’ it is because of this that this was said.”

55 (5) Decline
There the Venerable Sāriputta addressed the bhikkhus: “Friends, bhikkhus!”
   “Friend!” those bhikkhus replied. The Venerable Sāriputta said this:
   “Friends, it is said: ‘A person subject to decline, a person subject to decline.’ In what way has the Blessed One said that a person is subject to decline, and in what way that a person is not subject to decline?”
   “We would come from far away, friend, to learn the meaning of this statement from the Venerable Sāriputta. It would be good if he would clear up the meaning of this statement. [103] Having heard it from him, the bhikkhus will retain it in mind.”
   “Well then, friends, listen and attend closely. I will speak.”
   “Yes, friend,” those bhikkhus replied. The Venerable Sāriputta said this:
   “In what way, friends, has the Blessed One said that a person is subject to decline? Here, a bhikkhu does not get to hear a teaching he has not heard before; he forgets those teachings that he has heard; those teachings with which he had previously been familiar do not recur to him; and he does not get to understand what he has not understood. It is in this way that the Blessed One has said a person is subject to decline.
   “And in what way, friends, has the Blessed One said that a person is not subject to decline? Here, a bhikkhu gets to hear a teaching he has not heard before; he does not forget teachings that he has heard; those teachings with which he had previously been familiar recur to him; and he gets to understand what he has not understood. It is in this way that the Blessed One has said a person is not subject to decline.
   “Friends, a bhikkhu who is not skilled in the ways of others’ minds [should train]: ‘I will be skilled in the ways of my own mind.’ It is in this way that you should train yourselves.
   “And how, friends, is a bhikkhu skilled in the ways of his own mind? It is just as if a woman or a man, young, youthful, and fond of ornaments, would look at their own facial reflection in a clean and bright mirror or in a bowl of clear water. If they see any dust or blemish there, they will make an effort to remove it. But if they do not see any dust or blemish there, they will be glad about it; [104] and their wish fulfilled, they will think, ‘How fortunate for me that I’m clean!’ So too, self-examination is very helpful for a bhikkhu [to grow] in wholesome qualities.
   “[One should ask oneself:] (1) ‘Am I often without longing? Does this quality exist in me or not? (2) Am I often without ill will? Does this quality exist in me or not? (3) Am I often free from dullness and drowsiness? Does this quality exist in me or not? (4) Am I often calm? Does this quality exist in me or not? (5) Am I often free from doubt? Does this quality exist in me or not? (6) Am I often without anger? Does this quality exist in me or not? (7) Is my mind often undefiled? Does this quality exist in me or not? (8) Do I gain internal joy of the Dhamma? Does this quality exist in me or not? (9) Do I gain internal serenity of mind? Does this quality exist in me or not? (10) Do I gain the higher wisdom of insight into phenomena? Does this quality exist in me or not?’
   “If, by such self-examination, a bhikkhu does not see any of these wholesome qualities present in himself, then he should put forth extraordinary desire, effort, zeal, enthusiasm, indefatigability, mindfulness, and clear comprehension to obtain those wholesome qualities. Just as one whose clothes or head had caught fire would put forth extraordinary desire, effort, zeal, enthusiasm, indefatigability, mindfulness, and clear comprehension to extinguish [the fire on] his clothes or head, so that bhikkhu should put forth extraordinary desire, effort, zeal, enthusiasm, indefatigability, mindfulness, and clear comprehension to obtain those wholesome qualities.
   “But if, by such self-examination, a bhikkhu sees some wholesome qualities present in himself but not others, [105] he should base himself on those wholesome qualities that he sees in himself and put forth extraordinary desire, effort, zeal, enthusiasm, indefatigability, mindfulness, and clear comprehension to obtain those wholesome qualities that he does not see in himself. Just as one whose clothes or head had caught fire would put forth extraordinary desire … to extinguish [the fire on] his clothes or head, so that bhikkhu should base himself on the wholesome qualities that he sees in himself and put forth extraordinary desire … to obtain those wholesome qualities that he does not see in himself.
   “But if, by such self-examination, a bhikkhu sees all these wholesome qualities present in himself, he should base himself on those same wholesome qualities and make a further effort to reach the destruction of the taints.”

56 (6) Perceptions (1)
“Bhikkhus, these ten perceptions, when developed and cultivated, are of great fruit and benefit, culminating in the deathless, having the deathless as their consummation. What ten? (1) The perception of unattractiveness, (2) the perception of death, (3) the perception of the repulsiveness of food, (4) the perception of non-delight in the entire world, (5) the perception of impermanence, (6) the perception of suffering in the impermanent, (7) the perception of non-self in what is suffering, (8) the perception of abandoning, (9) the perception of dispassion, and (10) the perception of cessation. These ten perceptions, when developed and cultivated, are of great fruit and benefit, culminating in the deathless, having the deathless as their consummation.” [106]

57 (7) Perceptions (2)
“Bhikkhus, these ten perceptions, when developed and cultivated, are of great fruit and benefit, culminating in the deathless, having the deathless as their consummation. What ten? (1) The perception of impermanence, (2) the perception of non-self, (3) the perception of death, (4) the perception of the repulsiveness of food, (5) the perception of non-delight in the entire world, (6) the perception of a skeleton, (7) the perception of a worm-infested corpse, (8) the perception of a livid corpse, (9) the perception of a fissured corpse, and (10) the perception of a bloated corpse. These ten perceptions, when developed and cultivated, are of great fruit and benefit, culminating in the deathless, having the deathless as their consummation.”

58 (8) Roots
“Bhikkhus, wanderers of other sects may ask you: (1) ‘In what, friends, are all things rooted? (2) Through what do they come into being? (3) From what do they originate? (4) Upon what do they converge? (5) By what are they headed? (6) What exercises authority over them? (7) What is their supervisor? (8) What is their essence? (9) In what do they culminate? (10) What is their consummation?’ If you are asked thus, how would you answer them?”
   “Bhante, our teachings are rooted in the Blessed One, guided by the Blessed One, take recourse in the Blessed One. It would be good if the Blessed One would clear up the meaning of this statement. Having heard it from him, the bhikkhus will retain it in mind.”
   “Then listen, bhikkhus, and attend closely. I will speak.”
   “Yes, bhante,” those bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One said this:
   “Bhikkhus, if wanderers of other sects should ask you: ‘What, friends, are all things rooted in? … [107] … What is their consummation?’, you should answer them as follows.
   “‘Friends, (1) all things are rooted in desire. (2) They come into being through attention. (3) They originate from contact. (4) They converge upon feeling. (5) They are headed by concentration. (6) Mindfulness exercises authority over them. (7) Wisdom is their supervisor. (8) Liberation is their essence. (9) They culminate in the deathless. (10) Their consummation is nibbāna.’
   “If you are asked thus, bhikkhus, it is in such a way that you should answer those wanderers of other sects.”

59 (9) Going Forth
“Therefore, bhikkhus, you should train yourselves thus: ‘Our minds will be strengthened in accordance with [the spirit of] our going forth, and arisen bad unwholesome qualities will not obsess our minds. (1) Our minds will be strengthened in the perception of impermanence. (2) Our minds will be strengthened in the perception of non-self. (3) Our minds will be strengthened in the perception of unattractiveness. (4) Our minds will be strengthened in the perception of danger. (5) We will know the even and uneven ways of the world, and our minds will be strengthened in this perception. (6) We will know the coming into being and extermination of the world, and our minds will be strengthened in this perception. (7) We will know the origination and passing away of the world, and our minds will be strengthened in this perception. (8) Our minds will be strengthened in the perception of abandoning. (9) Our minds will be strengthened in the perception of dispassion. (10) Our minds will be strengthened in the perception of cessation.’ [108] It is in such a way that you should you train yourselves.
   “When a bhikkhu’s mind has been strengthened in accordance with [the spirit of] his going forth, and arisen bad unwholesome qualities do not obsess his mind—when his mind has been strengthened in the perception of impermanence … when his mind has been strengthened in the perception of cessation—one of two fruits is to be expected for him: either final knowledge in this very life or, if there is a residue remaining, the state of non-returning.”

60 (10) Girimānanda
   
On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Sāvatthī in Jeta’s Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika’s Park. Now on that occasion the Venerable Girimānanda was sick, afflicted, and gravely ill. Then the Venerable Ānanda approached the Blessed One, paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:
   “Bhante, the Venerable Girimānanda is sick, afflicted, and gravely ill. It would be good if the Blessed One would visit him out of compassion.”
   “If, Ānanda, you visit the bhikkhu Girimānanda and speak to him about ten perceptions, it is possible that on hearing about them his affliction will immediately subside. What are the ten? [109]
   “(1) The perception of impermanence, (2) the perception of non-self, (3) the perception of unattractiveness, (4) the perception of danger, (5) the perception of abandoning, (6) the perception of dispassion, (7) the perception of cessation, (8) the perception of non-delight in the entire world, (9) the perception of impermanence in all conditioned phenomena, and (10) mindfulness of breathing.
   (1) “And what, Ānanda, is the perception of impermanence? Here, having gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty hut, a bhikkhu reflects thus: ‘Form is impermanent, feeling is impermanent, perception is impermanent, volitional activities are impermanent, consciousness is impermanent.’ Thus he dwells contemplating impermanence in these five aggregates subject to clinging. This is called the perception of impermanence.
   (2) “And what, Ānanda, is the perception of non-self? Here, having gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty hut, a bhikkhu reflects thus: ‘The eye is non-self, forms are non-self; the ear is non-self, sounds are non-self; the nose is non-self, odors are non-self; the tongue is non-self, tastes are non-self; the body is non-self, tactile objects are non-self; the mind is non-self, mental phenomena are non-self.’ Thus he dwells contemplating non-self in these six internal and external sense bases. This is called the perception of non-self.
   (3) “And what, Ānanda, is the perception of unattractiveness? Here, a bhikkhu reviews this very body upwards from the soles of the feet and downwards from the tips of the hairs, enclosed in skin, as full of many kinds of impurities: ‘There are in this body hair of the head, hair of the body, nails, teeth, skin, flesh, sinews, bones, bone marrow, kidneys, heart, liver, pleura, spleen, lungs, intestines, mesentery, stomach, excrement, bile, phlegm, pus, blood, sweat, fat, tears, grease, saliva, snot, fluid of the joints, urine.’ Thus he dwells contemplating unattractiveness in this body. This is called the perception of unattractiveness.
   (4) “And what, Ānanda, is the perception of danger? Here, having gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty hut, a bhikkhu reflects thus: ‘This body is the source of much pain [110] and danger; for all sorts of afflictions arise in this body, that is, eye-disease, inner ear-disease, nose-disease, tongue-disease, body-disease, head-disease, outer ear-disease, mouth-disease, tooth-disease, cough, asthma, catarrh, pyrexia, fever, stomachache, fainting, dysentery, gripes, cholera, leprosy, boils, eczema, tuberculosis, epilepsy, ringworm, itch, scab, chickenpox, scabies, hemorrhage, diabetes, hemorrhoids, cancer, fistula; illnesses originating from bile, phlegm, wind, or their combination; illnesses produced by change of climate; illnesses produced by careless behavior; illnesses produced by assault; or illnesses produced as the result of kamma; and cold, heat, hunger, thirst, excretion, and urination.’ Thus he dwells contemplating danger in this body. This is called the perception of danger.
   (5) “And what, Ānanda, is the perception of abandoning? Here, a bhikkhu does not tolerate an arisen sensual thought; he abandons it, dispels it, terminates it, and obliterates it. He does not tolerate an arisen thought of ill will … an arisen thought of harming … bad unwholesome states whenever they arise; he abandons them, dispels them, terminates them, and obliterates them. This is called the perception of abandoning.
   (6) “And what, Ānanda, is the perception of dispassion? Here, having gone to the forest, to the root of a tree, or to an empty hut, a bhikkhu reflects thus: ‘This is peaceful, this is sublime, that is, the stilling of all activities, the relinquishment of all acquisitions, the destruction of craving, dispassion, nibbāna.’ This is called the perception of dispassion.
   (7) “And what, Ānanda, is the perception of cessation? Here, having gone to the forest, to the root of a tree, or to an empty hut, a bhikkhu reflects thus: ‘This is peaceful, [111] this is sublime, that is, the stilling of all activities, the relinquishment of all acquisitions, the destruction of craving, cessation, nibbāna.’ This is called the perception of cessation.
   (8) “And what, Ānanda, is the perception of non-delight in the entire world? Here, a bhikkhu refrains from any engagement and clinging, mental standpoints, adherences, and underlying tendencies in regard to the world, abandoning them without clinging to them. This is called the perception of non-delight in the entire world.
   (9) “And what, Ānanda, is the perception of impermanence in all conditioned phenomena? Here, a bhikkhu is repelled, humiliated, and disgusted by all conditioned phenomena. This is called the perception of impermanence in all conditioned phenomena.
   (10) “And what, Ānanda, is mindfulness of breathing? Here, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty hut, sits down. Having folded his legs crosswise, straightened his body, and established mindfulness in front of him, just mindful he breathes in, mindful he breathes out.
   “Breathing in long, he knows: ‘I breathe in long’; or breathing out long, he knows: ‘I breathe out long.’ Breathing in short, he knows: ‘I breathe in short’; or breathing out short, he knows: ‘I breathe out short.’ He trains thus: ‘Experiencing the whole body, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Experiencing the whole body, I will breathe out.’ He trains thus: ‘Tranquilizing the bodily activity, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Tranquilizing the bodily activity, I will breathe out.’
   “He trains thus: ‘Experiencing rapture, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Experiencing rapture, I will breathe out.’ He trains thus: ‘Experiencing happiness, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Experiencing happiness, I will breathe out.’ He trains thus: ‘Experiencing the mental activity, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Experiencing the mental activity, I will breathe out.’ He trains thus: ‘Tranquilizing the mental activity, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Tranquilizing the mental activity, I will breathe out.’
   “He trains thus: ‘Experiencing the mind, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Experiencing the mind, I will breathe out.’ [112] He trains thus: ‘Gladdening the mind, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Gladdening the mind, I will breathe out.’ He trains thus: ‘Concentrating the mind, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Concentrating the mind, I will breathe out.’ He trains thus: ‘Liberating the mind, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Liberating the mind, I will breathe out.’
   “He trains thus: ‘Contemplating impermanence, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Contemplating impermanence, I will breathe out.’ He trains thus: ‘Contemplating fading away, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Contemplating fading away, I will breathe out.’ He trains thus: ‘Contemplating cessation, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Contemplating cessation, I will breathe out.’ He trains thus: ‘Contemplating relinquishment, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Contemplating relinquishment, I will breathe out.’
   “This is called mindfulness of breathing.
   “If, Ānanda, you visit the bhikkhu Girimānanda and speak to him about these ten perceptions, it is possible that on hearing about them he will immediately recover from his affliction.”
   Then, when the Venerable Ānanda had learnt these ten perceptions from the Blessed One, he went to the Venerable Girimānanda and spoke to him about them. When the Venerable Girimānanda heard about these ten perceptions, his affliction immediately subsided. The Venerable Girimānanda recovered from that affliction, and that is how he was cured of his affliction. [113]
 

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